Java Script Interview Questions & Answers part 2

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Q: – How can JavaScript be used to personalize or tailor a Web site to fit individual users?

JavaScript allows a Web page to perform "if-then" kinds of decisions based on browser version, operating system, user input, and, in more recent browsers, details about the screen size in which the browser is running. While a server CGI program can make some of those same kinds of decisions, not everyone has access to or the expertise to create CGI programs. For example, an experienced CGI programmer can examine information about the browser whenever a request for a page is made; thus a server so equipped might serve up one page for Navigator users and a different page for Internet Explorer users. Beyond browser and operating system version, a CGI program can't know more about the environment. But a JavaScript-enhanced page can instruct the browser to render only certain content based on the browser, operating system, and even the screen size.
Scripting can even go further if the page author desires. For example, the author may include a preference screen that lets the user determine the desired background and text color combination. A script can save this information on the client in a well-regulated local file called a cookie. The next time the user comes to the site, scripts in its pages look to the cookie info and render the page in the color combination selected previously. The server is none the wiser, nor does it have to store any visitor-specific information.

Q: – Are you concerned that older browsers don't support JavaScript and thus exclude a set of Web users? individual users?

Fragmentation of the installed base of browsers will only get worse. By definition, it can never improve unless absolutely everyone on the planet threw away their old browsers and upgraded to the latest gee-whiz versions. But even then, there are plenty of discrepancies between the scriptability of the latest Netscape Navigator and Microsoft Internet Explorer.
The situation makes scripting a challenge, especially for newcomers who may not be aware of the limitations of earlier browsers. A lot of effort in my books and ancillary material goes toward helping scripters know what features work in which browsers and how to either workaround limitations in earlier browsers or raise the compatibility common denominator.
Designing scripts for a Web site requires making some hard decisions about if, when, and how to implement the advantages scripting offers a page to your audience. For public Web sites, I recommend using scripting in an additive way: let sufficient content stand on its own, but let scriptable browser users receive an enhanced experience, preferably with the same HTML document.

Q: – How to write a script for "Select" lists using javascript

1. To remove an item from a list set it to null
mySelectObject.options[3] = null;
2. To truncate a list set its length to the maximum size you desire
mySelectObject.length = 2;
3. To delete all options in a select object set the length to 0.
mySelectObject.leng

Q: – Are Java and JavaScript the Same?

No.java and javascript are two different languages.
Java is a powerful object – oriented programming language like C++,C whereas Javascript is a client-side scripting language with some limitations.

Q: – What and where are the best JavaScript resources on the Web?

The Web has several FAQ areas on JavaScript. The best place to start is something called the meta-FAQ [14-Jan-2001 Editor’s Note: I can’t point to it anymore, it is broken!], which provides a high-level overview of the JavaScript help available on the Net. As for fact-filled FAQs, I recommend one maintained by Martin Webb and a mini-FAQ that I maintain.
For interactive help with specific problems, nothing beats the primary JavaScript Usenet newsgroup, comp.lang.javascript. Depending on my work backlog, I answer questions posted there from time to time. Netscape and Microsoft also have vendor-specific developer discussion groups as well as detailed documentation for the scripting and object model implementations.

Q: – What are undefined and undeclared variables?

Undeclared variables are those that are not declared in the program (do not exist at all),trying to read their values gives runtime error.But if undeclared variables are assigned then implicit declaration is done .
Undefined variables are those that are not assigned any value but are declared in the program.Trying to read such variables gives special value called undefined value.

Q: – How to shift and unshift using JavaScript?

<script type="text/javascript">
var numbers = [“one”, “two”, “three”, “four”];
numbers.unshift("zero");
document.write(" "+numbers.shift());
document.write(" "+numbers.shift());
document.write(" "+numbers.shift());
</script>
This produces
zero one two
shift, unshift, push, and pop may be used on the same array. Queues are easily implemented using combinations.

Q: – What's Prototypes for JavaScript?

Objects have "prototypes" from which they may inherit fields and functions.
<script type="text/javascript">
function movieToString() {
return("title: "+this.title+" director: "+this.director);
}
function movie(title, director) {
this.title = title;
this.director = director || "unknown"; //if null assign to "unknown"
this.toString = movieToString; //assign function to this method pointer
}
movie.prototype.isComedy = false; //add a field to the movie's prototype
var officeSpace = new movie("OfficeSpace");
var narnia = new movie("Narni","Andrew Adamson");
document.write(narnia.toString());
document.write("
Narnia a comedy? "+narnia.isComedy);
officeSpace.isComedy = true; //override the default just for this object
document.write("
Office Space a comedy? "+officeSpace.isComedy);
</script>

unescape(), escape()
These are similar to the decodeURI() and encodeURI(), but escape() is used for only portions of a URI.

<script type="text/javascript">
var myvalue = "Sir Walter Scott";
document.write("Original myvalue: "+myvalue);
document.write("<br />escaped: "+escape(myvalue));
document.write("<br />uri part: \"&author="+escape(myvalue)+"\"");
</script>

If you use escape() for the whole URI… well bad things happen.
<script type="text/javascript">
var uri = "http://www.google.com/search?q=sonofusion Taleyarkhan"
document.write("Original uri: "+uri);
document.write("
escaped: "+escape(uri));
v/script>
decodeURI(), encodeURI()
Many characters cannot be sent in a URL, but must be converted to their hex encoding. These functions are used to convert an entire URI (a superset of URL) to and from a format that can be sent via a URI.
<script type="text/javascript">
var uri = "http://www.google.com/search?q=sonofusion Taleyarkhan"
document.write("Original uri: "+uri);
document.write("<br />encoded: "+encodeURI(uri));
</script>

Q: – How to create an object using JavaScript?

Objects can be created in many ways. One way is to create the object and add the fields directly.

<script type="text/javascript">
var myMovie = new Object();
myMovie.title = "Aliens";
myMovie.director = "James Cameron";
document.write("movie: title is \""+myMovie.title+"\"");
<
This produces
movie: title is "Aliens"
To create an object you write a method with the name of your object and invoke the method with "new".
<script type="text/javascript">
function movie(title, director) {
this.title = title;
this.director = director;
}
var aliens = new movie("Aliens","Cameron");
document.write("aliens:"+aliens.toString());
</script>
This produces
aliens:[object Object]

You can also use an abbreviated format for creating fields using a ":" to separate the name of the field from its value. This is equivalent to the above code using "this.".
<script type="text/javascript">
function movie(title, director) {
title : title;
director : director;
}
var aliens = new movie("Aliens","Cameron");
document.write("aliens:"+aliens.toString());
</script>
This produces
aliens:[object Object]

Q: –What does break and continue statements do?

Continue statement continues the current loop (if label not specified) in a new iteration whereas break statement exits the current loop.

 Q: – How to use "join()" to create a string from an array using JavaScript?

"join" concatenates the array elements with a specified seperator between them.

<script type="text/javascript">
var days = [“Sunday”,”Monday”,”Tuesday”,”Wednesday”, “Thursday”,”Friday”,”Saturday”];
document.write("days:"+days.join(","));
</script>

Q: – How to make elements invisible ?

Change the "visibility" attribute of the style object associated with your element. Remember that a hidden element still takes up space, use "display" to make the space disappear as well.

if ( x == y) {
myElement.style.visibility = 'visible';
} else {
myElement.style.visibility = 'hidden';
}

Submitted By:-Payal Gupta            Email-ID: – payalgupta1325@yahool.com

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